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Fresh water cultured pearls are created by the joint efforts of the mollusk and man. The result of the cultivation of pearls is the required size, color and shape, whereas in natural pearls these parameters are random. The very process of growing cultivated and natural pearls is not much different. The only thing is that in the first case, a person implants an implant into the body of a mollusk, and in the second case, small parasites and foreign bodies are irritants. The difference between these two types of pearls is only the amount of nacre and the rate of maturation. Natural pearls consist entirely of nacre, and they have a bead in the base, which in the process of creation is covered with a thin layer of nacre. 

In 1893 (Japanese traditional calendar Meiji 26) Mr. Yukichi Mikimoto succeeded in culturing pearls of Akoyagai and set a path for mass production. The place is Aika (Ojama) in Mie prefecture = current Toba City, and the Aishima in Fukuoka prefecture and Kanji are the same. Most of the domestic cultured pearl mother shell is Akoyagi. Put the nucleus as the source of the pearl in the mother shell and the piece of cell that makes the mother of pearl. The nacre is wrapped around the nucleus and becomes a pearl. Domestic Akoya pearl swept the world market, but technology has been transmitted through employees working overseas farms and aquaculture business developed locally. Black butterflies and white pearls are imported from Tahiti etc, freshwater pearls which can be gathered from eggs, etc. from China etc. According to the Japan Pearl Promotion Organization, an industry organization, the occurrence of reddening diseases in various parts of the country in 1996 also overlapped, and the harvest amount of Akoya pearl decreased. In 1999 domestic cultured pearl yields and overseas pearl imports reversed. 


Pearls made by aquaculture . It was formed by inserting artificial nucleus into the body of pearl oyster , and Mikimoto Yukichi (Mikimoto Kokichi) succeeded in practical application for the first time. Normally we use Akoyagi , but there are occasions when it is used such as blackbirds , sarcasm , and abalone . First of all, we lower the seedlings made from Sugi bran, shells, wire mesh etc in the sea, collect larvae of Akoyagi, grow in about 3 cm, drop them from a raft (raft) and train. Nucleus surgery is performed on two to three years' larvae, and a spherical nucleus made of shells is inserted into the shell body together with a part of the epithelial cells of the mantle (gut) membrane of the acario. After the operation, the shellfish is transferred again to the cage, taken out half to three years later and the pearl is taken out. Japan is the most popular pearl farming, but it is also done somewhat in the waters of Southeast Asia and Australia.

The distribution and production volume of the main pearl farms in Japan are as follows. 
Ehime Prefecture (Uwa Sea), Mie Prefecture (Ago Bay), Nagasaki Prefecture (Tsushima), Kumamoto Prefecture (Amakusa) are the mother shells of Akoyagai It accounts for 90% of production. 
In addition, Okinawa Prefecture Ishigakijima / Iriomotejima is a black clover, Amagi Oshima, Kagoshima Prefecture Amabi Oshima is Mabe, Ogajima Nagasaki prefecture Ogajima is a mother shell, and pearl farming is carried out. 
In Lake Biwa, Lake Kasumigaura, Iketokogai is used as a mother shell and cultivating freshwater pearls. 

In each pearl farm, Japanese pearl farmers do various processes with various processes, such as growing mother shells, tailoring mother clusters, nucleus insertion, curing, control, hippuing, etc. in order to obtain excellent pearls. 
At the stage of those stages, we will transfer shellfish to each aquaculture fishery in line with the growth of Akoyagi. 

The condition of the pearl culture fishing  ground is that there is a training fishery with abundant phytoplankton in the bay with seawater temperature of 13 degrees or more, rich in water depth, with a calm fishing ground of waves, tidal and odorous. 

There must be a cold fishing ground where the seawater temperature does not fall below 10 degrees in winter.  Red tide, conditions such as having evacuation fishing ground in preparation for typhoon are necessary.

Cultivation of mother shells:

1. In the first year of artificial seedling , February to March When people lack natural mother shells, people make shellfish. First of all, in the order of artificial seedlings, we choose mother shells with a beautiful inner shell color and thick mother shells to obtain excellent mother shells. The juveniles of Akoyagai are both sexes, but adults are heterosomal, so divide them into male and female. Collect eggs of female shells (oviposition), collect spermatozoa (semen) and conduct artificial mating.  Pearl culture farmers purchase artificially raised pearl oysters (about 1 mm) around April.

2. Growth of juveniles In April to May, the offshore outbreak (hatching) is carried out for 15 to 25 days in the aquarium and then enters a settlement life. When entering a settlement life, Put it in a basket "and grow it in the ocean until about 10 mm in shell length around 9 to October.

3. Second year of breeding mother shell Shegrows off the coast of Okinawa, so it is put in a large network of "cultured baskets" according to the growth of shells, Japanese will harvest it from Ikada and cultivate mother shell.

4. Tailoring of the mother shell In the third year of the second year, preparing for nuclear surgery performed in May and June, the process to be done on the mother shell is called "tailoring". 

Also, it may cause poor quality beads and cause deconucleation etc. Therefore, artificially adjusting the physiological activity of the shellfish by methods such as "inhibition" and "egg extraction". "Restraint / egg-stop" is a method of breeding mother shells in a cramped state from the fall in autumn, suppressing activity until the spring insertion nucleus and matured the eggs.   "To remove eggs" is a method of stimulating mother shells to lay eggs and using that method for mother shells to be inserted in May to June. " Three shells " in the third year, April to May
For example, if you try to forcibly open a shell with an opening machine (opening device), the shell is cracked or the scallop is broken because the shell closing power is strong . So, when doing a nucleus surgery, it is a work to prepare to open the shell smoothly.  "Scallop stand" is a work that stands without a gap in the box for shellfish several hours before the insertion nucleus.

In order to open the shell and breathe, in such a state that breathing shellfish is tormented for several hours, it hangs in the sea in a net basket. Just before the insertion operation, remove several shellfish from the box or release the shellfish in a tank filled with salt water. Then the shellfish opens the shell to breathe.


Preparation for nuclear surgery  3rd year, May to June

Preparation of "Peace" and "Nuclear" to be inserted in the reproductive cavity of Akoya shell.

Pieces cut pieces / small pieces of cutting membrane are called "pieces" or "cells".  The mother fish that collects the pieces uses other individuals that are vigorous in mother-of-marrow secretion.

Piece Cutting

Place the surface (surface) of the outer mantle that is in contact with the mother-of-pearl layer facing upward  and use the section of the mantle cut to 2 mm square for the "piece".

Pearl nucleus

Nuclear essential for Akoya pearl culture The material of the nucleus which becomes the center of the pearl mainly cuts  the bivalve of the family Buddhist family living in the USA Mississippi River into a true circle (true sphere) and uses it for nucleus.


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Fresh Water Cultured Pearls

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